2012-2013 Program Review
Physics
 
I Instruction
A Assessment goals and outcomes for each degree program (reported separately)
B Input Data
 
B 1 Headcount, Person Years and FTE -- Overall and Devoted To Instruction
Physics

  Physics College Total University Total
2010-2011
2011-2012
2012-2013
2012-2013
2012-2013
Tenured & tenure-earning faculty Professor, Assoc Professor, Asst Professor Total Headcount   13 12 9 107 636
Total Person-Years   11.0 10.0 7.7 100.0 542.0
Person-Years Devoted To Instruction   3.9 4.1 3.8 54.4 308.0
Total FTE   14.6 13.3 10.2 133.4 722.7
FTE Devoted to Instruction   5.2 5.4 5.1 72.6 410.6
Non-tenure-earning faculty Instructors, Lecturers, Visiting Faculty Total Headcount   3 3 3 32 221
Total Person-Years   3.0 2.6 2.6 26.6 180.7
Person-Years Devoted To Instruction   2.8 2.5 2.4 22.8 149.5
Total FTE   4.0 3.5 3.4 35.4 240.9
FTE Devoted to Instruction   3.7 3.3 3.2 30.4 199.3
Other personnel paid on faculty pay plan Scholar/ Scientist/ Engineer, Research Assoc, Assoc In, Asst In, Postdoc Assoc Total Headcount   2 3 3 16 100
Total Person-Years   1.7 2.5 2.5 13.4 81.3
Person-Years Devoted To Instruction   1.1 1.2 1.4 3.7 13.8
Total FTE   2.3 3.4 3.4 17.9 108.5
FTE Devoted to Instruction   1.5 1.7 1.9 5.0 18.4
Adjuncts -- Total Headcount   5 4 3 32 597
Total Person-Years   1.7 1.5 1.1 8.1 107.3
Person-Years Devoted To Instruction   1.4 1.5 1.0 7.2 104.4
Total FTE   2.2 2.0 1.4 10.7 143.0
FTE Devoted to Instruction   1.8 2.0 1.3 9.6 139.2
Graduate Assistants -- Total Headcount   32 40 34 375 1,173
Total Person-Years   13.3 14.2 13.6 132.1 325.2
Person-Years Devoted To Instruction   13.0 13.6 12.6 110.6 212.4
Total FTE   17.7 19.0 18.1 176.2 433.6
FTE Devoted to Instruction   17.4 18.2 16.8 147.5 283.2
Other -- Total Headcount   4 4 4 50 241
Total Person-Years   0.8 0.5 0.8 14.2 39.8
Person-Years Devoted To Instruction   0.6 0.4 0.7 4.8 11.8
Total FTE   1.0 0.6 1.1 18.9 53.1
FTE Devoted to Instruction   0.8 0.5 0.9 6.4 15.7
Total Total Headcount   59 66 56 612 2,968
Total Person-Years   31.4 31.4 28.3 294.4 1,276.4
Person-Years Devoted To Instruction   22.8 23.3 22.0 203.6 799.9
Total FTE   41.8 41.9 37.7 392.5 1,701.8
FTE Devoted to Instruction   30.4 31.1 29.3 271.4 1,066.5

Source: Instruction and Research File
 
 
Report includes summer, fall and spring semester data
Faculty headcounts are unduplicated within year; faculty with appointments in multiple departments are counted in the department where they devoted most effort.
Adjuncts and Grad Assistants are counted in each department where they had an appointment.
Person-year= 1 person working full time for one year
1.00 FTE = .75 person-years



B 2 Instructional Faculty and Adjuncts By Gender and Ethnicity
Physics

Instructional Faculty (Tenured, tenure-earning, & non-tenure-earning) Physics College Total University Total
2010-2011
2011-2012
2012-2013
2012-2013
2012-2013
American Indian/Alaskan Native Male         1
Total         1
Asian or Pacific Islander       1 1 1
Female 2 2 1 7 28
Male 2 2 1 15 78
Total 4 4 3 23 107
Black (Not of Hispanic Origin)           1
Female       1 30
Male       3 18
Total       4 49
Hispanic         1 1
Female 1     3 34
Male 2 2 1 4 23
Total 3 2 1 8 58
White (Not of Hispanic Origin)       0 0 3
Female 1 1 1 23 276
Male 10 11 9 86 382
Total 11 12 10 109 661
Total       1 2 6
Female 4 3 2 34 368
Male 14 15 11 108 502
Total 18 18 14 144 876

Source: Instruction and Research File
Instructional Faculty includes tenured, tenure-earning and non-tenure-earning faculty members who taught a course during the year.



B 2 Instructional Faculty and Adjuncts By Gender and Ethnicity
Physics

Adjuncts Physics College Total University Total
2010-2011
2011-2012
2012-2013
2012-2013
2012-2013
American Indian/Alaskan Native Female         1
Total         1
Asian or Pacific Islander Female       1 11
Male 1     1 11
Total 1     2 22
Black (Not of Hispanic Origin) Female       3 33
Male         14
Total       3 47
Hispanic Female         10
Male         10
Total         20
White (Not of Hispanic Origin) Female 1 1 1 14 288
Male 3 3 2 13 219
Total 4 4 3 27 507
Total Female 1 1 1 18 343
Male 4 3 2 14 254
Total 5 4 3 32 597

Source: Instruction and Research File



B 3 Average Course Section Size and Percent of Sections Taught By Faculty
Physics

  Physics College Total University Total
2010-2011
2011-2012
2012-2013
2012-2013
2012-2013
Course Level Type     44 41 47 692 5,154
Undergraduate Lecture/Seminar Sections Offered #
  # Enrolled 3,249 3,355 3,535 47,552 192,004
  Avg Section Enrollment 73.8 81.8 75.2 68.7 37.3
Sections Faculty-Taught # 34 34 38 475 3,487
% 77.3 82.9 80.9 68.6 67.7
Lab Sections Offered # 124 124 124 633 931
  # Enrolled 1,696 1,699 1,931 12,456 18,859
  Avg Section Enrollment 13.7 13.7 15.6 19.7 20.3
Sections Faculty-Taught # 124 124 123 345 502
% 100.0 100.0 99.2 54.5 53.9
Discussion Sections Offered #       125 258
  # Enrolled       3,989 7,208
  Avg Section Enrollment       31.9 27.9
Sections Faculty-Taught #       78 211
%       62.4 81.8
Other Course Types Sections Offered # 2   3 322 1,380
  # Enrolled 3   6 974 8,897
  Avg Section Enrollment 1.5   2.0 3.0 6.4
Sections Faculty-Taught # 2   3 304 1,073
% 100.0   100.0 94.4 77.8
Graduate Lecture/Seminar Sections Offered # 20 20 20 167 1,575
  # Enrolled 111 127 122 1,386 22,406
  Avg Section Enrollment 5.6 6.4 6.1 8.3 14.2
Sections Faculty-Taught # 15 15 15 158 1,318
% 75.0 75.0 75.0 94.6 83.7
Lab Sections Offered #       1 42
  # Enrolled       20 465
  Avg Section Enrollment       20.0 11.1
Sections Faculty-Taught #       1 26
%       100.0 61.9
Other Course Types Sections Offered # 28 33 35 756 1,951
  # Enrolled 103 104 79 1,080 4,840
  Avg Section Enrollment 3.7 3.2 2.3 1.4 2.5
Sections Faculty-Taught # 28 33 33 703 1,831
% 100.0 100.0 94.3 93.0 93.8

Source: Instruction and Research File and Student Data Course File
 
'Other Course Types' includes DIS, Thesis/Dissertation Research, Individual Performance Instruction, Internships, etc.
Sections taught by tenured, tenure-earning and non-tenure-earning faculty are counted as 'faculty-taught'



B 4 a Majors Enrolled By Level (Annual Headcount)
Physics (Program CIP: 400801)

  Physics College Total University Total
2011-2012 2012-2013 2012-2013 2012-2013
Professional       124
Bachelors 48 67 5,617 28,523
Masters/Specialist 4 1 228 4,675
Doctoral 33 27 279 927
Unclassified       2,927
Total 85 95 6,124 37,176

Source: Student Data Course File
Note: For Annual Headcounts, each student is counted once whether enrolled in summer, fall or spring.
Students enrolled in more than one term during the year are included in the level of their latest term.



B 4 b Majors Enrolled (Annual Headcount) By Gender and Ethnicity
Physics (Program CIP: 400801)

  Physics College Total University Total
2011-2012 2012-2013 2012-2013 2012-2013
Professional Asian or Pacific Islander Female       8
Male       6
Total       14
Black (Not of Hispanic Origin) Female       1
Total       1
Hispanic Female       14
Male       3
Total       17
White (Not of Hispanic Origin) Female       41
Male       47
Total       88
Not Reported Female       2
Male       2
Total       4
Total Female       66
Male       58
Total       124
Undergraduate American Indian/Alaskan Native Female     23 96
Male   1 13 77
Total   1 36 173
Asian or Pacific Islander Female   1 247 776
Male 2 2 145 664
Total 2 3 392 1,440
Black (Not of Hispanic Origin) Female 3 2 769 3,535
Male 3 6 334 2,129
Total 6 8 1,103 5,664
Hispanic Female   2 952 3,922
Male 6 5 435 2,855
Total 6 7 1,387 6,777
White (Not of Hispanic Origin) Female 5 6 1,576 7,431
Male 26 38 956 6,217
Total 31 44 2,532 13,648
Non-Resident Alien Female 3 2 87 318
Male   2 30 294
Total 3 4 117 612
Not Reported Female     33 130
Male     17 79
Total     50 209
Total Female 11 13 3,687 16,208
Male 37 54 1,930 12,315
Total 48 67 5,617 28,523
Graduate American Indian/Alaskan Native Female     2 11
Male       8
Total     2 19
Asian or Pacific Islander Female     14 155
Male     13 119
Total     27 274
Black (Not of Hispanic Origin) Female     10 624
Male 1 1 20 265
Total 1 1 30 889
Hispanic Female     27 495
Male 0   25 318
Total 0   52 813
White (Not of Hispanic Origin) Female 2 2 158 1,926
Male 10 8 143 1,233
Total 12 10 301 3,159
Non-Resident Alien Female 3 2 38 177
Male 21 15 53 200
Total 24 17 91 377
Not Reported Female     4 41
Male       30
Total     4 71
Total Female 5 4 253 3,429
Male 32 24 254 2,173
Total 37 28 507 5,602
Unclassified American Indian/Alaskan Native Female       5
Male       4
Total       9
Asian or Pacific Islander Female       118
Male       120
Total       238
Black (Not of Hispanic Origin) Female       273
Male       143
Total       416
Hispanic Female       282
Male       207
Total       489
White (Not of Hispanic Origin) Female       854
Male       748
Total       1,602
Non-Resident Alien Female       64
Male       57
Total       121
Not Reported Female       30
Male       22
Total       52
Total Female       1,626
Male       1,301
Total       2,927

Source: Student Data Course File
Note: For Annual Headcounts, each student is counted once whether enrolled in summer, fall or spring.
Students enrolled in more than one term during the year are included in the level of their latest term.



Productivity Data
 
C 1 Annualized State-Fundable FTE Produced By Level
Physics

  Physics College Total University Total
2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2012-2013 2012-2013
Undergraduate Total   322.5 330.5 355.2 3,948.6 15,335.0
             
Graduate Total   23.3 21.4 18.1 228.2 2,223.7
Grad I   3.5 4.9 4.8 98.5 1,838.4
Grad II   19.8 16.5 13.3 129.7 385.2
             
Classroom   14.4 15.0 13.3 183.2 2,085.9
Thesis-Dissertation   8.8 6.4 4.8 45.1 137.7
             
Grand Total   345.8 352.0 373.3 4,176.9 17,558.6

Source: Student Data Course File
Based On State-Fundable Credit Hours
Note: Grad I and Grad II groups will sum to Graduate Total; Classroom and Thesis-Dissertation will sum to Graduate Total.



C 2 Annualized State-Fundable FTE Produced In/Out Of Department or College
Physics

  Courses offered by:
Physics College of Science University Total
2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2012-2013 2012-2013
Course Level FTE produced by students who are: 3.3 2.0 5.1 202.4 729.1
Lower Division Undergraduate Majors within the department
Majors outside the department, but within the college 147.5 144.9 168.6 839.9 1,743.9
Majors outside the college 166.4 176.4 173.0 1,606.2 4,111.2
Total 317.2 323.2 346.6 2,648.5 6,584.2
Upper Division Undergraduate FTE produced by students who are: 4.4 5.3 6.6 785.7 5,103.4
Majors within the department
Majors outside the department, but within the college 0.5 0.7 0.2 268.5 2,343.8
Majors outside the college 0.5 1.3 1.9 246.0 1,303.6
Total 5.3 7.3 8.6 1,300.2 8,750.8
Graduate FTE produced by students who are: 22.1 21.0 16.4 188.3 1,730.7
Majors within the department
Majors outside the department, but within the college 0.3   0.8 17.0 348.5
Majors outside the college 0.8 0.5 0.9 22.9 144.4
Total 23.3 21.4 18.1 228.2 2,223.7
Total FTE produced by students who are: 29.8 28.2 28.0 1,176.3 7,563.2
Majors within the department
Majors outside the department, but within the college 148.2 145.6 169.5 1,125.4 4,436.2
Majors outside the college 167.7 178.1 175.7 1,875.1 5,559.3
Total 345.8 352.0 373.3 4,176.9 17,558.6

Source: Student Data Course File
Based On State-Fundable Credit Hours



C 3 Degrees Awarded
Physics (Program CIP: 400801)

  Physics College Total University Total
2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2012-2013 2012-2013
  Degrees awarded with a:         297.0
Associates Single major
All         297.0
Bachelors Degrees awarded with a: 7.0 3.0 2.0 707.0 4,861.0
Single major
Double or triple major       10.5 263.0
All 7.0 3.0 2.0 717.5 5,124.0
Masters Degrees awarded with a: 8.0 7.0 7.0 92.0 1,413.0
Single major
Double or triple major       1.0 2.0
All 8.0 7.0 7.0 93.0 1,415.0
Specialist Degrees awarded with a:         25.0
Single major
All         25.0
Doctorate Degrees awarded with a:   6.0   35.0 103.0
Single major
All   6.0   35.0 103.0
Total Degrees awarded with a: 15.0 16.0 9.0 834.0 6,699.0
Single major
Double or triple major       11.5 265.0
All 15.0 16.0 9.0 845.5 6,964.0

Source: Student Data Course File
Note: Degrees awarded with multiple majors may result in fractional degree totals for some groups.
A degree awarded with a single major contributes 1 degree, a double major contributes 1/2 degree in each major,
and a triple major contributes 1/3 degree in each major to the degree totals.



Efficiency Data
 
D 1 Annualized FTE Produced Per Instructional Person-Year
Physics

  Physics College Total University Total
2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2012-2013 2012-2013
Undergraduate   14.2 14.2 16.2 19.4 19.1
Graduate   1.0 0.9 0.8 1.1 2.8
Total   15.2 15.1 17.0 20.5 21.9

Source: Instruction and Research File and Student Data Course File
Includes Instructional Person-Years from all personnel categories.
Annualized FTE (C 1) produced for each person-year devoted to instruction (B 1 department total).



D 2 Degrees Awarded Per FACULTY Instructional Person Year
Physics (Program CIP: 400801)

  Physics College Total University Total
2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2012-2013 2012-2013
Associates 0 0 0 0 0.6
Bachelors 1.0 0.5 0.3 9.3 11.2
Masters 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.2 3.1
Specialist 0 0 0 0 0.1
Doctorate 0 0.9 0 0.5 0.2
Total 2.2 2.4 1.4 11.0 15.2

Source: Instruction and Research File and Student Data Course File
Includes Instructional Person-Years from Tenured, Tenure-earning and Non-tenure-earning faculty only
Number of Degrees (C 3) produced for each Faculty person-year devoted to instruction (B 1 tenured, tenure-earning and non-tenure-earning faculty).



Effectiveness Data
 
E 1 Rating of Quality of Instruction (item 20) and Instructor (item 21) from Student Perception of Teaching (SPOT)
Physics

Scale 1=Excellent 5=Poor 20. Rate the quality of instruction as it contributed to your learning in the course.
Physics College Total University Total
2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2012-2013 2012-2013
Undergraduate # Sections   153 147 208 1,510 5,771
Mean Rating   1.8 2.0 1.9 2.0 1.9
Graduate # Sections   17 13 15 130 1,016
Mean Rating   1.8 2.0 2.2 1.7 1.7
Total # Sections   170 160 223 1,640 6,787
Mean Rating   1.8 2.0 1.9 2.0 1.8

Source: Student Perception of Teaching Results



Effectiveness Data
 
E 1 Rating of Quality of Instruction (item 20) and Instructor (item 21) from Student Perception of Teaching (SPOT)
Physics

Scale: 1=One of Most Effective 5=One of Least Effective 21. What is your rating of this instructor compared to other instructors you have had?
Physics College Total University Total
2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2012-2013 2012-2013
Undergraduate # Sections   153 147 208 1,510 5,771
Mean Rating   2.1 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.0
Graduate # Sections   17 13 15 130 1,016
Mean Rating   1.9 2.1 2.2 1.9 1.9
Total # Sections   170 160 223 1,640 6,787
Mean Rating   2.1 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.0

Source: Student Perception of Teaching Results



E 2 Mean Rating of Satisfaction With Instruction & Advising In Program
Physics

  Physics College Total University Total
2000-2001 2002-2003 2004-2005 2006-2007 2008-2009 2010-2011 2012-2013 2012-2013 2012-2013
Student Level       2 2 1 1 1 5 356 2,211
Undergraduate Quality of courses in degree program # Responses
  Mean   4.0 3.0 2.0 4.0 3.0 3.4 3.0 3.0
Quality of instructors in degree program # Responses   2 2 1 1 1 4 333 2,137
  Mean   4.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.2 2.9 3.0
Quality of advising in college advising office # Responses   1 1 0 1 0 4 310 1,933
  Mean   4.0 4.0   4.0   3.5 2.8 2.8
Quality of advising by faculty # Responses   1 0 0 1 1 4 257 1,808
  Mean   2.0     4.0 4.0 3.0 2.8 2.9
Graduate Quality of courses in degree program # Responses 4 0 1     4 4 13 476
  Mean 3.5   3.0     2.2 3.5 3.3 3.1
Quality of instructors in degree program # Responses 4 0 1     4 5 14 461
  Mean 3.2   3.0     2.5 3.4 3.4 3.2
Quality of advising in college advising office # Responses 2 0 0     1 1 7 308
  Mean 3.0         2.0 2.0 2.8 3.0
Quality of advising by faculty # Responses 4 0 1     3 3 12 358
  Mean 3.5   2.0     2.3 3.3 3.1 3.1

Scale 1=Poor 4=Excellent
Source: Student Satisfaction Survey



II. Research, Creative & Scholarly Activities
A Assessment Goals and Outcomes for Research (reported separately)
B 1 Faculty Person Years and FTE Devoted to Research
Physics

  Physics College Total University Total
2010-2011
2011-2012
2012-2013
2012-2013
2012-2013
Departmental Research Tenured & tenure-earning faculty Professor, Assoc Professor, Asst Professor Person-Years   3.6 2.9 1.9 20.0 92.7
FTE   4.8 3.8 2.5 26.7 123.6
Non-tenure-earning faculty Instructors, Lecturers, Visiting Faculty Person-Years         1.4 4.1
FTE         1.8 5.5
Other personnel paid on faculty pay plan -- Person-Years   0.6 0.4 0.1 1.6 15.9
FTE   0.8 0.6 0.1 2.1 21.2
Total Person-Years   4.2 3.3 2.0 22.9 112.8
FTE   5.6 4.4 2.6 30.6 150.4
Sponsored Research Tenured & tenure-earning faculty Professor, Assoc Professor, Asst Professor Person-Years   1.2 1.0 0.6 6.4 24.9
FTE   1.6 1.3 0.7 8.5 33.2
Non-tenure-earning faculty Instructors, Lecturers, Visiting Faculty Person-Years         0.3 3.7
FTE         0.4 4.9
Other personnel paid on faculty pay plan -- Person-Years     0.7 0.9 7.3 38.2
FTE     0.9 1.2 9.8 50.9
Total Person-Years   1.2 1.6 1.5 14.0 66.8
FTE   1.6 2.2 1.9 18.7 89.0

Source: Instruction and Research File
'Other personnel paid on faculty pay plan' includes Scholar/Scientist/Engineer (all ranks), Research Assoc, Assoc In, Asst In, Postdoctoral Assoc
 
Includes summer, fall and spring semester data
Person-year= 1 person working full time for one year
1.00 FTE = .75 person-years



C 1-9 Research/Scholarly Productivity
Physics

  Physics College Total University Total
2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2012-2013 2012-2013
1. Books (including monographs & compositions) # 5 5 7 22 146
2. Other peer-reviewed publications # 26 22 21 229 1,161
3. All other publications # 16 9 16 31 501
4. Presentations at professional meetings or conferences # 39 20 27 308 1,435
5. Productions/Performances/Exhibitions # 6 7 34 36 377
6. Grant Proposals Submitted # 10 12 5 109 385
Sponsored Research & Program Expenditures            
7. Organized Research # $220,845 $299,475 $421,621 $8,625,887 $15,603,749
8. Sponsored Instruction # $65,555 $64,628 $28,515 $1,242,409 $6,138,254
9. Other Sponsored Activities # $41,817 $53,325 $0 $620,037 $2,565,166

Sources: College Dean's Office and Division of Research (Grant Proposals Submitted & Sponsored Research & Program Expenditures)
 
Note: Grant Proposals Submitted includes proposals administered by the Division of Research only. This number does not include funding proposals administered by the FAU Foundation footnote4 University Total Grant Proposals Submitted excludes proposals submitted by units outside the University's Colleges (e.g., IRM, Library).
 
Sponsored Research and Program Expenditures excludes expenditures by units outside the University's Colleges (e.g., Library, Henderson School).
 
Organized Research: All research and development activities of an institution that are separately budgeted and accounted for.
Sponsored Instruction: Instructional or training activity established by grant, contract, or cooperative agreement.
Other Sponsored Activities: Programs and projects financed by Federal and non Federal agencies and organizations which involve the performance of work other than instruction and organized research (e.g., health or community service projects).



D 1-9 Efficiency Data
Physics

  Physics College Total University Total
2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2012-2013 2012-2013
1. Books (including monographs & compositions) per faculty member   0.4 0.4 0.8 0.2 0.2
2. Other peer-review publications per faculty member   2.0 1.8 2.3 2.1 1.8
3. All other publications per faculty member   1.2 0.8 1.8 0.3 0.8
4. Presentations at professional meetings or conferences per faculty member   3.0 1.7 3.0 2.9 2.3
5. Productions/Performances/Exhibitions per faculty member   0.5 0.6 3.8 0.3 0.6
6. Grant proposals submitted per faculty member   0.8 1.0 0.6 1.0 0.6
Sponsored Research & Program Expenditures            
7. Organized research expenditures per faculty member   $16,988 $24,956 $46,847 $80,616 $24,534
8. Sponsored instruction expenditures per faculty member   $5,043 $5,386 $3,168 $11,611 $9,651
9. Other sponsored activity expenditures per faculty member   $3,217 $4,444 $0 $5,795 $4,033

Scholarly output(Section II, C 1-9) per tenured and tenure earning faculty member (Section I B 1)



III. Service
A Assessment Goals and Outcomes for Service (reported separately)
B 1-3 Service Productivity
Physics

  Physics College Total University Total
2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2012-2013 2012-2013
1. Faculty memberships on department, college or university committees # 44 12 40 273 2,348
2. Faculty memberships on community or professional committees # 13 2 4 69 972
3. Faculty serving as editors or referees for professional publications # 56 11 13 96 611

Source: College Dean's Offices



C 1-3 Efficiency Data
Physics

  Physics College Total University Total
2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2012-2013 2012-2013
1. Faculty memberships on department, college or university committees per faculty member   3.4 1.0 4.4 2.6 3.7
2. Faculty memberships on community or professional committees per faculty member   1.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 1.5
3. Faculty serving as editors or referees for professional publications per faculty member   4.3 0.9 1.4 0.9 1.0

Faculty committee memberships and faculty serving as editors or referees (Section III B 1-3) per tenured and tenure earning faculty member (Section I B 1)