2014-2015 Program Review
Architecture
 
I Instruction
A Assessment goals and outcomes for each degree program (reported separately)
B Input Data
 
B 1 Headcount, Person Years and FTE -- Overall and Devoted To Instruction
Architecture

  Architecture College Total University Total
2012-2013
2013-2014
2014-2015
2014-2015
2014-2015
Tenured & tenure-earning faculty Professor, Assoc Professor, Asst Professor Total Headcount   10 10 11 52 673
Total Person-Years   8.1 8.6 8.9 45.8 577.6
Person-Years Devoted To Instruction   5.4 5.3 5.9 21.9 294.0
Total FTE   10.8 11.5 11.9 61.0 770.2
FTE Devoted to Instruction   7.2 7.1 7.9 29.2 392.0
Non-tenure-earning faculty Instructors, Lecturers, Visiting Faculty Total Headcount         19 260
Total Person-Years         15.3 212.0
Person-Years Devoted To Instruction         9.5 166.7
Total FTE         20.4 282.6
FTE Devoted to Instruction         12.7 222.2
Other personnel paid on faculty pay plan Scholar/ Scientist/ Engineer, Research Assoc, Assoc In, Asst In, Postdoc Assoc Total Headcount         2 65
Total Person-Years         2.0 53.0
Person-Years Devoted To Instruction         1.0 9.3
Total FTE         2.7 70.7
FTE Devoted to Instruction         1.3 12.4
Adjuncts -- Total Headcount   14 11 16 80 590
Total Person-Years   2.4 2.9 2.2 15.1 107.2
Person-Years Devoted To Instruction   2.4 2.9 2.2 14.3 102.3
Total FTE   3.3 3.9 2.9 20.1 142.9
FTE Devoted to Instruction   3.3 3.9 2.9 19.0 136.4
Graduate Assistants -- Total Headcount         50 1,136
Total Person-Years         14.5 351.6
Person-Years Devoted To Instruction         3.5 240.8
Total FTE         19.4 468.7
FTE Devoted to Instruction         4.7 321.1
Other -- Total Headcount   1 1 2 7 231
Total Person-Years   0.1 0.2 0.2 1.4 41.7
Person-Years Devoted To Instruction   0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 12.8
Total FTE   0.1 0.3 0.3 1.9 55.6
FTE Devoted to Instruction   0.1 0.3 0.3 0.3 17.1
Total Total Headcount   25 22 29 210 2,955
Total Person-Years   10.6 11.8 11.3 94.1 1,343.0
Person-Years Devoted To Instruction   8.0 8.5 8.3 50.4 825.9
Total FTE   14.2 15.7 15.1 125.5 1,790.7
FTE Devoted to Instruction   10.6 11.3 11.0 67.2 1,101.2

Source: Instruction and Research File
 
 
Report includes summer, fall and spring semester data
Faculty headcounts are unduplicated within year; faculty with appointments in multiple departments are counted in the department where they devoted most effort.
Adjuncts and Grad Assistants are counted in each department where they had an appointment.
Person-year= 1 person working full time for one year
1.00 FTE = .75 person-years



B 2 Instructional Faculty and Adjuncts By Gender and Ethnicity
Architecture

Instructional Faculty (Tenured, tenure-earning, & non-tenure-earning) Architecture College Total University Total
2012-2013
2013-2014
2014-2015
2014-2015
2014-2015
American Indian/Alaskan Native Male         2
Total         2
Asian or Pacific Islander           1
Female       3 35
Male 2 2 2 5 88
Total 2 2 2 8 124
Black (Not of Hispanic Origin)           0
Female       3 36
Male       2 23
Total       5 59
Hispanic           1
Female       3 29
Male 1 1 1 1 22
Total 1 1 1 4 52
White (Not of Hispanic Origin)         0 16
Female 1 1 1 23 296
Male 6 6 7 32 376
Total 7 7 8 55 688
Total         0 18
Female 1 1 1 32 396
Male 9 9 10 40 511
Total 10 10 11 72 925

Source: Instruction and Research File
Instructional Faculty includes tenured, tenure-earning and non-tenure-earning faculty members who taught a course during the year.



B 2 Instructional Faculty and Adjuncts By Gender and Ethnicity
Architecture

Adjuncts Architecture College Total University Total
2012-2013
2013-2014
2014-2015
2014-2015
2014-2015
Asian or Pacific Islander Female         13
Male 1       13
Total 1       26
Black (Not of Hispanic Origin) Female   1     27
Male       1 18
Total   1   1 45
Hispanic Female       1 12
Male     1 2 10
Total     1 3 22
White (Not of Hispanic Origin) Female 4 3 4 30 280
Male 9 7 11 46 217
Total 13 10 15 76 497
Total Female 4 4 4 31 332
Male 10 7 12 49 258
Total 14 11 16 80 590

Source: Instruction and Research File



B 3 Average Course Section Size and Percent of Sections Taught By Faculty
Architecture

  Architecture College Total University Total
2012-2013
2013-2014
2014-2015
2014-2015
2014-2015
Course Level Type     29 36 36 367 5,102
Undergraduate Lecture/Seminar Sections Offered #
  # Enrolled 1,263 1,427 1,313 14,231 194,750
  Avg Section Enrollment 43.6 39.6 36.5 38.8 38.2
Sections Faculty-Taught # 17 22 28 189 3,513
% 58.6 61.1 77.8 51.5 68.9
Lab Sections Offered # 9 7 6 6 913
  # Enrolled 183 131 124 124 16,622
  Avg Section Enrollment 20.3 18.7 20.7 20.7 18.2
Sections Faculty-Taught # 2 1 1 1 426
% 22.2 14.3 16.7 16.7 46.7
Discussion Sections Offered #         296
  # Enrolled         7,985
  Avg Section Enrollment         27.0
Sections Faculty-Taught #         237
%         80.1
Other Course Types Sections Offered # 35 40 36 61 1,250
  # Enrolled 340 340 349 532 7,543
  Avg Section Enrollment 9.7 8.5 9.7 8.7 6.0
Sections Faculty-Taught # 28 28 26 49 934
% 80.0 70.0 72.2 80.3 74.7
Graduate Lecture/Seminar Sections Offered # 6 7 9 217 1,628
  # Enrolled 98 185 188 4,140 21,457
  Avg Section Enrollment 16.3 26.4 20.9 19.1 13.2
Sections Faculty-Taught # 4 4 7 176 1,379
% 66.7 57.1 77.8 81.1 84.7
Lab Sections Offered #         60
  # Enrolled         518
  Avg Section Enrollment         8.6
Sections Faculty-Taught #         35
%         58.3
Other Course Types Sections Offered # 10 8 10 89 1,880
  # Enrolled 131 107 112 265 3,735
  Avg Section Enrollment 13.1 13.4 11.2 3.0 2.0
Sections Faculty-Taught # 8 5 8 85 1,785
% 80.0 62.5 80.0 95.5 94.9

Source: Instruction and Research File and Student Data Course File
 
'Other Course Types' includes DIS, Thesis/Dissertation Research, Individual Performance Instruction, Internships, etc.
Sections taught by tenured, tenure-earning and non-tenure-earning faculty are counted as 'faculty-taught'



B 4 a Majors Enrolled By Level (Annual Headcount)
Architecture (Program CIP: 040201)

  Architecture College Total University Total
2012-2013 2013-2014 2014-2015 2014-2015 2014-2015
Professional         249
Bachelors 292 321 313 2,986 28,561
Masters/Specialist       686 4,467
Doctoral       45 985
Unclassified         3,104
Total 292 321 313 3,717 37,366

Source: Student Data Course File
Note: For Annual Headcounts, each student is counted once whether enrolled in summer, fall or spring.
Students enrolled in more than one term during the year are included in the level of their latest term.



B 4 b Majors Enrolled (Annual Headcount) By Gender and Ethnicity
Architecture (Program CIP: 040201)

  Architecture College Total University Total
2012-2013 2013-2014 2014-2015 2014-2015 2014-2015
Professional Asian or Pacific Islander Female         20
Male         14
Total         34
Black (Not of Hispanic Origin) Female         8
Male         1
Total         9
Hispanic Female         23
Male         8
Total         31
White (Not of Hispanic Origin) Female         73
Male         92
Total         165
Not Reported Female         3
Male         7
Total         10
Total Female         127
Male         122
Total         249
Undergraduate American Indian/Alaskan Native Female   2 2 9 102
Male 2 1 3 13 92
Total 2 3 5 22 194
Asian or Pacific Islander Female 5 6 7 59 870
Male 7 5 3 40 709
Total 12 11 10 99 1,579
Black (Not of Hispanic Origin) Female 7 13 13 614 3,773
Male 24 23 32 301 2,276
Total 31 36 45 915 6,049
Hispanic Female 56 63 56 446 4,181
Male 74 72 67 297 2,952
Total 130 135 123 743 7,133
White (Not of Hispanic Origin) Female 25 29 35 557 6,815
Male 64 74 58 553 5,847
Total 89 103 93 1,110 12,662
Non-Resident Alien Female 13 15 19 47 362
Male 14 15 17 24 325
Total 27 30 36 71 687
Not Reported Female 0 1   19 150
Male 1 2 1 7 107
Total 1 3 1 26 257
Total Female 106 129 132 1,751 16,253
Male 186 192 181 1,235 12,308
Total 292 321 313 2,986 28,561
Graduate American Indian/Alaskan Native Female       3 21
Male         4
Total       3 25
Asian or Pacific Islander Female       16 148
Male       3 108
Total       19 256
Black (Not of Hispanic Origin) Female       163 695
Male       39 260
Total       202 955
Hispanic Female       86 504
Male       29 365
Total       115 869
White (Not of Hispanic Origin) Female       255 1,771
Male       107 1,141
Total       362 2,912
Non-Resident Alien Female       13 198
Male       11 210
Total       24 408
Not Reported Female       4 18
Male       2 9
Total       6 27
Total Female       540 3,355
Male       191 2,097
Total       731 5,452
Unclassified American Indian/Alaskan Native Female         2
Male         6
Total         8
Asian or Pacific Islander Female         156
Male         157
Total         313
Black (Not of Hispanic Origin) Female         248
Male         125
Total         373
Hispanic Female         338
Male         217
Total         555
White (Not of Hispanic Origin) Female         882
Male         761
Total         1,643
Non-Resident Alien Female         82
Male         101
Total         183
Not Reported Female         19
Male         10
Total         29
Total Female         1,727
Male         1,377
Total         3,104

Source: Student Data Course File
Note: For Annual Headcounts, each student is counted once whether enrolled in summer, fall or spring.
Students enrolled in more than one term during the year are included in the level of their latest term.



Productivity Data
 
C 1 Annualized State-Fundable FTE Produced By Level
Architecture

  Architecture College Total University Total
2012-2013 2013-2014 2014-2015 2014-2015 2014-2015
Undergraduate Total   140.6 149.8 140.9 1,152.8 15,316.6
             
Graduate Total   30.1 37.4 38.6 403.9 2,013.5
Grad I   30.1 37.4 38.6 385.4 1,616.5
Grad II         18.6 396.9
             
Classroom   30.1 37.4 38.6 398.6 1,882.2
Thesis-Dissertation         5.3 131.2
             
Grand Total   170.7 187.2 179.6 1,556.7 17,330.1

Source: Student Data Course File
Based On State-Fundable Credit Hours
Note: Grad I and Grad II groups will sum to Graduate Total; Classroom and Thesis-Dissertation will sum to Graduate Total.



C 2 Annualized State-Fundable FTE Produced In/Out Of Department or College
Architecture

  Courses offered by:
Architecture
College of Design
& Social Inquiry
University Total

2012-2013 2013-2014 2014-2015 2014-2015 2014-2015
Course Level FTE produced by students who are: 14.1 19.3 19.1 36.2 738.4
Lower Division Undergraduate Majors within the department
Majors outside the department, but within the college 6.0 3.2 2.8 12.2 1,699.2
Majors outside the college 35.5 38.1 29.9 94.7 4,149.2
Total 55.6 60.6 51.8 143.2 6,586.8
Upper Division Undergraduate FTE produced by students who are: 75.5 79.5 82.0 777.6 5,147.9
Majors within the department
Majors outside the department, but within the college 8.1 8.2 4.7 99.9 2,347.7
Majors outside the college 1.4 1.5 2.4 132.2 1,234.2
Total 85.0 89.2 89.2 1,009.7 8,729.8
Graduate FTE produced by students who are: 28.9 36.3 37.3 390.1 1,652.8
Majors within the department
Majors outside the department, but within the college 0.8 0.8 0.8 5.4 243.8
Majors outside the college 0.5 0.4 0.6 8.4 116.9
Total 30.1 37.4 38.6 403.9 2,013.5
Total FTE produced by students who are: 118.4 135.1 138.5 1,203.9 7,539.1
Majors within the department
Majors outside the department, but within the college 14.8 12.2 8.2 117.5 4,290.7
Majors outside the college 37.4 39.9 32.9 235.3 5,500.2
Total 170.7 187.2 179.6 1,556.7 17,330.1

Source: Student Data Course File
Based On State-Fundable Credit Hours



C 3 Degrees Awarded
Architecture (Program CIP: 040201)

  Architecture College Total University Total
2012-2013 2013-2014 2014-2015 2014-2015 2014-2015
  Degrees awarded with a:         360.0
Associates Single major
All         360.0
Bachelors Degrees awarded with a: 41.0 51.0 38.0 695.0 5,269.0
Single major
Double or triple major       25.5 204.0
All 41.0 51.0 38.0 720.5 5,473.0
Masters Degrees awarded with a:       248.0 1,390.0
Single major
Double or triple major         1.0
All       248.0 1,391.0
Specialist Degrees awarded with a:         16.0
Single major
All         16.0
Doctorate Degrees awarded with a:       3.0 114.0
Single major
All       3.0 114.0
Certificates Degrees awarded with a:         54.0
Single major
All         54.0
Total Degrees awarded with a: 41.0 51.0 38.0 946.0 7,203.0
Single major
Double or triple major       25.5 205.0
All 41.0 51.0 38.0 971.5 7,408.0

Source: Student Data Course File
Note: Degrees awarded with multiple majors may result in fractional degree totals for some groups.
A degree awarded with a single major contributes 1 degree, a double major contributes 1/2 degree in each major,
and a triple major contributes 1/3 degree in each major to the degree totals.



Efficiency Data
 
D 1 Annualized FTE Produced Per Instructional Person-Year
Architecture

  Architecture College Total University Total
2012-2013 2013-2014 2014-2015 2014-2015 2014-2015
Undergraduate   17.6 17.7 17.0 22.8 18.5
Graduate   3.8 4.4 4.7 8.0 2.4
Total   21.4 22.1 21.7 30.8 21.0

Source: Instruction and Research File and Student Data Course File
Includes Instructional Person-Years from all personnel categories.
Annualized FTE (C 1) produced for each person-year devoted to instruction (B 1 department total).



D 2 Degrees Awarded Per FACULTY Instructional Person Year
Architecture (Program CIP: 040201)

  Architecture College Total University Total
2012-2013 2013-2014 2014-2015 2014-2015 2014-2015
Associates 0 0 0 0 0.8
Bachelors 7.5 9.6 6.4 22.9 11.9
Masters 0 0 0 7.9 3.0
Specialist 0 0 0 0 0.0
Doctorate 0 0 0 0.1 0.2
Certificates 0 0 0 0 0.1
Total 7.5 9.6 6.4 30.9 16.1

Source: Instruction and Research File and Student Data Course File
Includes Instructional Person-Years from Tenured, Tenure-earning and Non-tenure-earning faculty only
Number of Degrees (C 3) produced for each Faculty person-year devoted to instruction (B 1 tenured, tenure-earning and non-tenure-earning faculty).



Effectiveness Data
 
E 1 Rating Course as a whole (item 20) and Instructor's Overall Teaching Effectiveness (item 21) from Student Perception of Teaching (SPOT)
Architecture

Scale 1=Excellent 5=Poor 20. This course as a whole was.
Architecture College Total University Total
Fall 2014 Spring 2015 Summer 2015 Fall 2014 Spring 2015 Summer 2015 Fall 2014 Spring 2015 Summer 2015
Undergraduate # Sections   18 18 1 136 134 78 2,450 2,401 844
Mean Rating   2.1 2.4 3.4 1.9 2.0 1.8 2.1 2.1 2.0
Graduate # Sections   5 4 1 79 75 23 368 452 154
Mean Rating   2.0 2.4 1.5 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.8
Total # Sections   23 22 2 215 209 101 2,818 2,853 998
Mean Rating   2.1 2.4 2.4 1.9 2.0 1.8 2.1 2.1 2.0

Source: Student Perception of Teaching Results, Fall 2014 to Summer 2015



Effectiveness Data
 
E 1 Rating Course as a whole (item 20) and Instructor's Overall Teaching Effectiveness (item 21) from Student Perception of Teaching (SPOT)
Architecture

Scale: 1=Excellent 5=Poor 21. Rate your instructor"s overall teaching effectiveness in this course
Architecture College Total University Total
Fall 2014 Spring 2015 Summer 2015 Fall 2014 Spring 2015 Summer 2015 Fall 2014 Spring 2015 Summer 2015
Undergraduate # Sections   18 18 1 136 134 78 2,450 2,401 844
Mean Rating   2.0 2.3 3.3 1.8 1.9 1.7 1.9 1.9 1.8
Graduate # Sections   5 4 1 79 75 23 368 452 154
Mean Rating   1.6 2.6 1.2 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.6
Total # Sections   23 22 2 215 209 101 2,818 2,853 998
Mean Rating   1.9 2.4 2.2 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.9 1.9 1.8

Source: Student Perception of Teaching Results, Fall 2014 to Summer 2015



E 2 Mean Rating of Satisfaction With Instruction & Advising In Program
Architecture

  Architecture College Total University Total
2000-2001 2002-2003 2004-2005 2006-2007 2008-2009 2010-2011 2012-2013 2012-2013 2012-2013
Student Level     79 117 100 105 77 58 82 329 2,211
Undergraduate Quality of courses in degree program # Responses
  Mean 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.6 2.9 3.0 2.8 3.1 3.0
Quality of instructors in degree program # Responses 81 113 98 103 71 58 82 323 2,137
  Mean 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.5 2.9 3.0 2.9 3.1 3.0
Quality of advising in college advising office # Responses 66 83 86 86 59 58 69 279 1,933
  Mean 2.6 2.4 2.3 2.6 2.7 2.2 2.6 2.9 2.8
Quality of advising by faculty # Responses 70 86 77 87 60 51 71 254 1,808
  Mean 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.9 2.9
Graduate Quality of courses in degree program # Responses 1 2   2 1 1   84 476
  Mean 4.0 2.5   3.5 3.0 4.0   3.0 3.1
Quality of instructors in degree program # Responses 1 2   2 1 0   81 461
  Mean 4.0 2.5   3.5 3.0     3.2 3.2
Quality of advising in college advising office # Responses 1 2   1 1 1   53 308
  Mean 4.0 2.5   3.0 3.0 1.0   3.0 3.0
Quality of advising by faculty # Responses 1 2   2 1 1   57 358
  Mean 3.0 2.5   3.5 3.0 3.0   3.1 3.1

Scale 1=Poor 4=Excellent
Source: Student Satisfaction Survey



II. Research, Creative & Scholarly Activities
A Assessment Goals and Outcomes for Research (reported separately)
B 1 Faculty Person Years and FTE Devoted to Research
Architecture

  Architecture College Total University Total
2012-2013
2013-2014
2014-2015
2014-2015
2014-2015
Departmental Research Tenured & tenure-earning faculty Professor, Assoc Professor, Asst Professor Person-Years   1.4 1.1 1.6 10.5 124.6
FTE   1.8 1.5 2.1 14.0 166.1
Non-tenure-earning faculty Instructors, Lecturers, Visiting Faculty Person-Years         0.4 5.2
FTE         0.6 6.9
Other personnel paid on faculty pay plan -- Person-Years           12.4
FTE           16.6
Total Person-Years   1.4 1.1 1.6 10.9 142.2
FTE   1.8 1.5 2.1 14.6 189.6
Sponsored Research Tenured & tenure-earning faculty Professor, Assoc Professor, Asst Professor Person-Years   0.0 0.3 0.1 0.7 21.8
FTE   0.0 0.4 0.1 1.0 29.1
Non-tenure-earning faculty Instructors, Lecturers, Visiting Faculty Person-Years         0.1 3.2
FTE         0.1 4.3
Other personnel paid on faculty pay plan -- Person-Years         0.8 24.1
FTE         1.1 32.1
Total Person-Years   0.0 0.3 0.1 1.6 49.1
FTE   0.0 0.4 0.1 2.1 65.5

Source: Instruction and Research File
'Other personnel paid on faculty pay plan' includes Scholar/Scientist/Engineer (all ranks), Research Assoc, Assoc In, Asst In, Postdoctoral Assoc
 
Includes summer, fall and spring semester data
Person-year= 1 person working full time for one year
1.00 FTE = .75 person-years



C 1-9 Research/Scholarly Productivity
Architecture

  Architecture College Total University Total
2012-2013 2013-2014 2014-2015 2014-2015 2014-2015
1. Books (including monographs & compositions) # 3 1 0 11 115
2. Other peer-reviewed publications # 16 4 0 74 1,269
3. All other publications # 7 10 0 57 544
4. Presentations at professional meetings or conferences # 25 27 0 143 1,757
5. Productions/Performances/Exhibitions # 29 16 0 12 335
6. Grant Proposals Submitted # 5 6 7 13 345
Sponsored Research & Program Expenditures            
7. Organized Research # $9,566 $7,952 $0 $0 $0
8. Sponsored Instruction # $2,586 $42,576 $0 $0 $0
9. Other Sponsored Activities # $0 $5,097 $0 $0 $0

Sources: College Dean's Office and Division of Research (Grant Proposals Submitted & Sponsored Research & Program Expenditures)
 
Note: Grant Proposals Submitted includes proposals administered by the Division of Research only. This number does not include funding proposals administered by the FAU Foundation
University Total Grant Proposals Submitted excludes proposals submitted by units outside the University's Colleges (e.g., IRM, Library).
Sponsored Research and Program Expenditures excludes expenditures by units outside the University's Colleges (e.g., Library, Henderson School).
 
Organized Research: All research and development activities of an institution that are separately budgeted and accounted for.
Sponsored Instruction: Instructional or training activity established by grant, contract, or cooperative agreement.
Other Sponsored Activities: Programs and projects financed by Federal and non Federal agencies and organizations which involve the performance of work other than instruction and organized research (e.g., health or community service projects).



D 1-9 Efficiency Data
Architecture

  Architecture College Total University Total
2012-2013 2013-2014 2014-2015 2014-2015 2014-2015
1. Books (including monographs & compositions) per faculty member   0.3 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.2
2. Other peer-review publications per faculty member   1.6 0.4 0.0 1.4 1.9
3. All other publications per faculty member   0.7 1.0 0.0 1.1 0.8
4. Presentations at professional meetings or conferences per faculty member   2.5 2.7 0.0 2.8 2.6
5. Productions/Performances/Exhibitions per faculty member   2.9 1.6 0.0 0.2 0.5
6. Grant proposals submitted per faculty member   0.5 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.5
Sponsored Research & Program Expenditures            
7. Organized research expenditures per faculty member   $957 $795 $0 $0 $0
8. Sponsored instruction expenditures per faculty member   $259 $4,258 $0 $0 $0
9. Other sponsored activity expenditures per faculty member   $0 $510 $0 $0 $0

Scholarly output(Section II, C 1-9) per tenured and tenure earning faculty member (Section I B 1)



III. Service
A Assessment Goals and Outcomes for Service (reported separately)
B 1-3 Service Productivity
Architecture

  Architecture College Total University Total
2012-2013 2013-2014 2014-2015 2014-2015 2014-2015
1. Faculty memberships on department, college or university committees # 60 39   221 3,055
2. Faculty memberships on community or professional committees # 19 25   86 1,086
3. Faculty serving as editors or referees for professional publications # 14 6   44 629

Source: College Dean's Offices



C 1-3 Efficiency Data
Architecture

  Architecture College Total University Total
2012-2013 2013-2014 2014-2015 2014-2015 2014-2015
1. Faculty memberships on department, college or university committees per faculty member   6.0 3.9   4.3 4.5
2. Faculty memberships on community or professional committees per faculty member   1.9 2.5   1.7 1.6
3. Faculty serving as editors or referees for professional publications per faculty member   1.4 0.6   0.8 0.9

Faculty committee memberships and faculty serving as editors or referees (Section III B 1-3) per tenured and tenure earning faculty member (Section I B 1)